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  Breast cancer screening exams Miami OBGYN checkup gynecological services miami

Breast cancer screening exams Miami gynecological services PAP-Smear OBGYN checkup gynecological services miami

Breast cancer screening exams Miami gynecological services PAP-Smear OBGYN checkup gynecological services miami

Breast cancer screening exams Miami gynecological services PAP-Smear OBGYN checkup gynecological services miami

Breast cancer screening exams Miami gynecological services PAP-Smear OBGYN checkup gynecological services miami

Breast cancer screening exams Miami gynecological services PAP-Smear OBGYN checkup gynecological services miami

Breast cancer screening exams Miami gynecological services PAP-Smear OBGYN checkup gynecological services miami

Breast cancer screening exams Miami gynecological services PAP-Smear OBGYN checkup gynecological services miami

Breast cancer screening exams Miami gynecological services PAP-Smear OBGYN checkup gynecological services miami

Breast cancer screening exams Miami gynecological services PAP-Smear OBGYN checkup gynecological services miami

Breast cancer screening exams Miami gynecological services PAP-Smear OBGYN checkup gynecological services miami

Breast cancer screening exams Miami gynecological services PAP-Smear OBGYN checkup gynecological services miami

Breast cancer screening exams Miami gynecological services PAP-Smear OBGYN checkup gynecological services miami

Breast cancer screening exams Miami gynecological services PAP-Smear OBGYN checkup gynecological services miami

Breast Cancer Screening

Many women are fearful of breast cancer. One reason is that breast cancer is personal. Breast cancer affects 1 in 8 women during their lives, and many of us know someone — a mother, sister, friend — who has had it. Another reason is that breast cancer is a real threat to women. It is the second leading cancer killer of women in the United States, next to lung cancer. It also can affect our sexual health, overall health, and emotional health. The good news is that most women who get breast cancer survive it. Thanks to screening, breast cancer often can be found early, when it’s easiest to treat. In fact, many women are even cured of the disease.

Women who want to learn more about breast cancer can start here. This section of Eve Women’s Medical gives an overview of breast cancer and cervical cancer providing detailed information.

Breast cancer screening looks for signs of cancer before a woman has symptoms. Screening can help find breast cancer early when it’s most treatable. Two tests are commonly used to screen for breast cancer:

  • Mammogram. A safe, low-dose x-ray exam of the breasts to look for changes that are not normal. Starting at age 40, women should have screening mammograms every 1 to 2 years.
  • Clinical breast exam (CBE). The doctor looks at and feels the breasts and under the arms for lumps or anything else that seems unusual. Women in their 20s and 30s should have a CBE every 3 years. After a woman turns 40, she should have a CBE every year.

Regular screening is the best way to find breast cancer early in most women. If you are at higher risk you may need mammograms at an earlier age or more often. Or, your doctor might want to use other tests too, such as a different type of mammogram or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

Some women also do a monthly breast self-exam (BSE). A BSE can help you to know the way your breasts normally look and feel so you can report any changes to your doctor. Ask your doctor to show you how to do a BSE.

Diagnosing Breast Cancer

Screening tests look for signs of cancer. If a screening mammogram or CBE shows a breast change that could be cancer, more tests are needed to learn more. These tests might include:

  • Diagnostic mammogram. This type of mammogram uses x-ray to take clearer, more detailed images of areas that look abnormal on a screening mammogram.
  • Clinical breast exam. The doctor might do this to learn how a lump feels. Lumps that are not cancer often feel different from lumps that are cancer.
  • Ultrasound exam. Sound waves help your doctor see if a lump is solid or filled with fluid.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Takes detailed pictures of areas inside the breast. Sometimes, large lymph nodes or breast lumps are found during a CBE that are not seen on a mammogram or ultrasound, so MRI is used.
  • Breast biopsy. Fluid or tissue is removed from the breast and checked for cancer cells. There are many types of biopsy. A biopsy is the only test to find out if cells are cancer.

Not all women who have abnormal screening test results need to have a biopsy. Sometimes, doctors can rule out cancer based on the results of follow-up tests without biopsy.

Finding out about "abnormal" breast changes can be scary. Talk to your doctor about what tests you might need and what the test results mean. If you learn that you have cancer, your doctor will help you move forward and begin treatment.

Cervical Cancer

Cancer is a disease that happens when body cells don't work right. The cells divide really fast and grow out of control. These extra cells form a tumor. Cervical cancer is cancer in the cervix, the lower, narrow part of the uterus (womb). The uterus is the hollow, pear-shaped organ where a baby grows during a woman's pregnancy. The cervix forms a canal that opens into the vagina (birth canal), which leads to the outside of the body.

Most cases of cervical cancer are caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV). HPV is a virus that is passed from person to person through genital contact, most often during vaginal and anal sex. You are more likely to get HPV if you have multiple partners. However, any woman who has ever had genital contact with another person can get HPV. Most women infected with HPV will not get cervical cancer. But, you are more likely to develop cervical cancer if you smoke, have HIV or reduced immunity, or don’t get regular Pap tests. Pap tests look for changes in the cervical cells that could become cancerous if not treated.

If the Pap test finds serious changes in the cells of the cervix, the doctor will suggest more powerful tests such as a colposcopy (kol-POSS-koh-pee). This procedure uses a large microscope called a colposcope (KOL-poh-skohp). This tool allows the doctor to look more closely at the cells of the vagina and cervix. This and other tests can help the doctor decide what areas should be tested for cancer.

Being Concerned about Cervical Cancer

Cervical cancer is a disease that can be very serious. However, it is a disease that you can help prevent. Cervical cancer happens when normal cells in the cervix change into cancer cells. This normally takes several years to happen, but it can also happen in a very short period of time.

Preventing Cervical Cancer

Scientists have developed a vaccine that helps prevent certain types of HPV. The vaccine helps protect against the types of HPV that most often cause cancer. Right now, the HPV vaccine (called Gardasil®) is only given to females ages 9 to 26. The vaccine is given in three doses (shots) over a six-month period. Women who are pregnant should not get the HPV vaccine until after the baby is born.

The HPV vaccine works best in females who haven’t been exposed to the virus. It protects against four types of HPV. Studies show the vaccine prevents about 70 percent of cervical cancers if it is given to women and girls before they have sex for the first time. It also protects against about 90 percent of genital warts. The shot works for at least five years, maybe longer. It is still under study.

About 30 percent of cervical cancers will not be prevented by the vaccine. But there are other ways to help prevent cervical cancer. By getting regular Pap tests and pelvic exams, your doctor can find and treat the changing cells before they turn into cancer. Practicing safer sex is also very important. Below are things you can do to help protect yourself against HPV and cervical cancer.

  • Don’t have sex. The best way to prevent any STD is to not have vaginal, oral, or anal sex.
  • Be faithful. Having sex with just one partner can also lower your risk. Be faithful to each other. That means that you only have sex with each other and no one else.
  • Use condoms. HPV can occur in both female and male genital areas that are not covered by condoms. However, research has shown that condom use is linked to lower cervical cancer rates. Protect yourself with a condom every time you have vaginal, anal, or oral sex.